The standard coffin was rectangular and brightly painted, often including an offering formula.Unlike the Old Kingdom, objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs; however, they reappeared toward the end of the Middle Kingdom.Kozieradzka-Ogunmakin's work was to conduct in-depth analysis of human remains to study the link between social status and physical health of the population at Saqqara, and more recently, the effect of the environment on human health."Given the close dependence of ancient Egyptian agricultural systems on the River Nile, environmental fluctuations may have had adverse impact on population health in the ancient Nile Valley", she told IBTimes UK.
Dr Iwona Kozieradzka-Ogunmakin, from the University of Manchester joined the Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission working in a small area of the site in 2006, to study human remains, both mummified and skeletonised.
Archaeological research at the necropolis focuses on investigating life and death in the region during two time periods (Old Kingdom and Ptolemaic-Early Roman Period).
Other new objects were introduced toward the end of the Middle Kingdom as well, including the first shabtis (also known as ushabtis) and the first scarabs.
Shabtis were funerary figurines placed in tombs of the deceased to help them in the afterlife.
Children buried in the Ancient Egypt necropolis of Saqqara 2,000 years ago may have suffered from anaemia, tooth decay and chronic sinusitis, archaeologists have discovered.
Saqqara is a vast burial ground which was used throughout antiquity, as the necropolis for Memphis, the ancient Egyptian capital.
While the Old Kingdom was a period of internal security and prosperity, it was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period.
Under King Djoser, the first king of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the royal capital of Egypt was moved to Memphis, where Djoser established his court.
At its beginnings, the site was mostly used to offer the city's elite impressive burials – and indeed rich and elaborate rock tombs dating to the Old Kingdom have been found in the past.
However, it was later extended to bury people from more modest backgrounds, among them young children.
We have also applied similar computational techniques to bring a new perspective to several monuments of Ancient Egypt.